Abstract: Cirrhosis is a worldwide problem that is associated with a substantial economic burden. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and alcoholic liver disease are the main causes of cirrhosis, but cost-effective preventive strategies are only available for HBV infection. Treatment algorithms for HBV infection and HCV infection are numerous and may be economically advantageous, depending on the regimen utilized; however, effective treatment for alcoholic liver disease is lacking, with abstinence from alcohol consumption continuing to be the main treatment strategy. In addition, liver transplantation (the only cure for cirrhosis) continues to consume substantial economic resources despite a recent reduction in overall cost. More sensitive predictors of post–liver transplantation disability could reduce this cost by allowing interventions that would promote productivity and increase health-related quality of life after liver transplantation. This paper highlights recent publications that evaluate the cost-effectiveness of strategies that prevent or treat the main causes of cirrhosis as well as publications that assess the impact of quality of life on the overall cost burden of the disease.