First-Degree Relatives of Individuals With Celiac Disease at Higher Risk of Diagnosis First-degree relatives (FDRs) of individuals diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) have an increased risk […]
Abstract: Abdominal bloating is commonly reported by men and women of all ages. Bloating occurs in nearly all patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and it also occurs in patients with other functional and organic disorders. Bloating is frequently disturbing to patients and frustrating to clinicians, as effective treatments are limited and are not universally successful. Although the terms bloating and abdominal distention are often used interchangeably, these symptoms likely involve different pathophysiologic processes, both of which are still not completely understood. The goal of this paper is to review the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of bloating and abdominal distention.
Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 10–20%. IBS can be associated with severe gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel function. Although the causes of IBS remain undefined, recent research has increasingly suggested roles for gut flora in IBS. These roles involve postinfectious IBS, which can occur after a single episode of acute gastroenteritis, and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, in which elevated populations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cause abdominal pain and altered bowel function. More recently, potential roles for methanogens in contributing to IBS subtypes have also been identified. In this paper, we review the different mechanisms by which gut flora may contribute to IBS and also discuss the efficacy and safety of various antibiotic therapies for treating IBS symptoms.